Richard Tol holds an M.Sc. (1992, Econometrics) and a Ph.D. (1997, Economics) from the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam. He was appointed as a professor at Hamburg University in April 2000, and left in September 2006 to join the Economic and Social Research Institute in Dublin, Ireland. At the ESRI, he coordinates research on energy and the environment, but also works on regulation and transport. He is the professor of the economics of climate change at the Department of Spatial Economics and the Institute for Environmental Studies at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. He is an author (contributing, lead, principal and convening) of Working Groups I, II and III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. He is an author and editor of the UNEP Handbook on Methods for Climate Change Impact Assessment and Adaptation Strategies.