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Climate policies in China and India: planning, implementation and linkages with international negotiations
Un article [en anglais], comparaison des politiques climatiques menées en Inde et en Chine, et leur importance dans le cadre des négociations internationales sur le changement cliamtique.
Points clés [en anglais] :
FROM DEVELOPMENT PRIORITIES…
China and India face very different challenges for the years to come, mainly because they are at very different levels of economic development. However, they both have to tackle the challenges of energy security and social development, which translate nationally into the concepts of the “harmonious society” in China and “inclusive growth” in India. And they both face huge challenges related to the development of infrastructure (transport and housing), laying the foundations for a low-carbon economy in the longer term.
…TO LOW-CARBON STRATEGIES IN CHINA AND INDIA
Low-carbon development strategies will differ from country to country, depending on the national contexts and priorities. China recently made important resolutions in the framework of its 12th Five-Year Plan, aimed at decoupling economic growth from greenhouse gas emissions. India has been developing “National Missions” on climate change, and recently set up an expert group to study “low-carbon strategies for inclusive growth”.
FROM THE UNDERSTANDING OF POLICY INSTRUMENTS…
China and India have already implemented several energy and climate policies and plan to develop them further, including via innovative policy institutions and instruments. Thereby, they should account for huge uncertainties in future economic development, a defining parameter of China’s particular national circumstances. Regarding the instruments themselves, market-based mechanisms are increasingly used in both countries, with the progressive implementation of Emission Trading Systems in China and the Perform, Achieve and Trade scheme in India.
…TO RESTORED TRUST WITHIN THE INTERNATIONAL NEGOTIATIONS
Internationally, major economies have pledged significant actions under the Cancun Agreements. However, recorded country pledges are very difficult to compare in the abstract. Therefore, it is important to look at the domestic action of countries, at the basic level of policies and measures, as the basis to restore mutual understanding at the international level. Indeed, mistrust between countries and sometimes the lack of credibility on the international scene for some of them, are clearly sources of tensions in international climate negotiations.