In order to reach the collective Paris Agreement’s goal of keeping global temperature rises to “well below 2°C”, countries need to submit more ambitious Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs). This requires focusing not only on countries’ aggregate emission levels, but also on the sectoral transformations needed to drive decarbonisation. The MILES project, coordinated by IDDRI will present its results about the key levers to foster these sectoral transformations in the European Union and in 7 key countries (Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico and the United States).