A quarter of the world's CO₂ emissions are due to the combustion of energy in transport. This sector, which is almost entirely dependent on oil–road, air, sea, river or rail–for both passengers and goods, therefore represents a central issue in the success of the transition.  

The transformation seems to be fully underway in the most developed markets, with, for example, a ban on the sale of light internal combustion vehicles in Europe in 2035, similar provisions in California and a significant advance in China in the marketing of electric vehicles. But while electrification has the greatest potential for mass adoption among the technological options that are set to develop, it is a whole range of levers that will have to be combined to achieve greater sustainability, such as demand management (through greater use of telecommunications, for example, or shorter journeys), better use of means of transport (car-sharing), modal shift, efficiency and sufficiency in means of transport (in terms of materials and energy), a rethink of urban planning and development, overhaul of urban planning and development plans, etc.

At the same time, the decarbonisation of means of transport, and first and foremost their electrification, will result in numerous co-benefits, with a significant improvement in air quality, particularly in the largest megalopolises, for example in India, where large cities are suffocating. However, this transition will undoubtedly call into question relations between OECD countries and countries of the Global South, particularly with regard to the extraction and refining of the raw materials (copper, nickel and cobalt) needed for batteries. It is therefore necessary to establish a fair framework for collaboration within these value chains, which are set to expand. 

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