In order to reach the collective Paris Agreement’s goal of keeping global temperature rises to “well-below 2°C”, countries need to submit more ambitious NDCs. This requires to focus not only on countries’ aggregate emission levels, but also on the sectoral transformations needed to drive decarbonisation. The MILES project publishes its results about the key levers to foster these sectoral transformations in the European Union and in 7 key countries.


  • A credible transition towards the Paris long-term goal requires deeper emission reductions before 2030.
  • Countries should identify the sectoral transformations required to implement the emission targets.
  • A smooth transition towards 2°C requires an acceleration of investment shifts in the energy sector before 2030.
  • The diffusion of key emerging low-carbon technologies should strongly accelerate. This requires an early scale-up of international collaboration on innovation and targeted policy incentives.
  • Electrification of energy end-uses is not sufficiently considered in current NDCs.
  • Mitigation strategies targeting also non-energy sectors are more cost effective and flexible.
  • Considering the sectoral transformations of key emitting sectors is crucial to align climate goals with other sustainable development targets.
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  • The MILES Project Consortium