Boran, I. et al. (2024). Making Global Climate Action work for nature and people: Priorities for Race to Zero and Race to Resilience, Environmental Science & Policy, Volume 159.



There is increasing recognition in science and policy that the current nature and climate change crises are highly intertwined, and that these need to be jointly addressed. Within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Race to Zero (R2Z) and the Race to Resilience (R2R) campaigns foster climate action by cities, regions, businesses, investors, and civil society organizations for mitigation and adaptation. The campaigns are part of UNFCCC-backed institutional arrangements linking intergovernmental climate governance with actions beyond national commitments to support the implementation of the Paris Agreement, also referred to as the Global Climate Action Agenda (GCAA). Both mobilization campaigns highlight and promote the contribution of nature to climate mitigation, adaptation, and resilience. Yet, the integration of nature in climate ambition is more complex than indicated in the calls to action. We here identify key areas of concern in the alignment of climate and biodiversity goals, discussing the biophysical and socio-ecological considerations relative to (i) practices for enhancing land-based and marine sinks to limit warming; (ii) the unpredictability of biodiversity dynamics under climate change; (iii) the spatial scale at which actions can be implemented; and (iv) the types of metrics that can be used for tracking progress. We provide recommendations for the two mobilization campaigns to integrate in their criteria and metrics frameworks to support effective and equitable actions that deliver for climate, but also for nature and people. We then make a call to action for transdisciplinary knowledge production and dissemination that strengthens science-policy interactions.