This Study takes stock of the place of the ocean in the zero draft of the post-2020 framework, presents recommendations to strengthen the provisions concerned, and highlights points that need attention to ensure effective implementation of the post-2020 framework in relation to marine and coastal ecosystems. It is based on an analysis of the zero draft and of its potential indicators, a literature review, and a series of interviews.
- One of the key targets of the zero draft concerns the creation of a protected area system covering 30% of the planet by 2030. To be operational, this target needs more precision on the distribution between land and sea and the part of the ocean which should be covered, on how this target will apply in areas beyond national jurisdiction, on the level of protection and quality standards for management and on the scientific designation process of marine protected areas (MPAs).
- Greater consideration of significant pressures on the ocean, such as overfishing, offshore drilling, mining and underwater noise should not necessarily to be sought in the the post-2020 goals and targets, but rather at the level of the implementation monitoring framework and its indicator.s
- As regard to the monitoring table and its implementation, existing tools and processes (e.g. UN forum on the law of the sea, regional organisations, processes linked to SDG 14, etc.) should be mobilised, especially to bring together the different reporting exercises, to avoid overlapping, and to identify capacity needs that vary according to the region and the process.
- “Mainstreaming” biodiversity within sectoral and regional intergovernmental organisations, as well as at the national level, is a fundamental challenge for the successful implementation of the post-2020 framework. Where relevant, the post-2020 framework needs to better reflect the ocean in its targets and indicators, but also in the sections concerning synergies with other international instruments, and the cooperation mechanisms to be set up with the existing organisations.