This article is based on research that has received a financial support from the French government in the framework of the programme « Investissements d’avenir », managed by ANR (French national agency for research) under the reference ANR-10-LABX-14-01.


  • In terms of both climate change mitigation and adaptation, ecosystems represent an important element in around 40 INDCs, which have placed “nature-based solutions” (NBS) in a highly visible position. The use of NBS is common especially in Africa and South America/the Caribbean, and far less so in Asia (excluding China) and Europe.
  • The drafting of the Paris Agreement confirms this importance by acknowledging the pivotal role played by nature in mitigation and adaptation. The Parties must ensure ecosystem resilience, especially in order to preserve the capacity of carbon sinks and reservoirs, and more specifically of forests.
  • Most INDCs still fall very short of truly coherent mitigation and adaptation policy programmes. The diversity and heterogeneity of the commitments made by the different countries mean that the question of the effective organisation of policies capable of implementing these commitments is still unresolved. The countries that find themselves “leaders” in terms of NBS could contribute to maintaining and facil- itating this governance.
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