Waisman H., Torres Gunfaus M., Pérez Català A., Svensson J., Bataille C., Briand Y., Aldana R., Anggreni L., Angulo-Paniagua J., Argyriou M., Benavides C., Bergamaschi L., Berghmans N., Boer R., Buira D., Bukowski M., Calderón W., D'Agosto M., de León F., Deprez A., Díaz M., Dorina A., Dubeux C., Fall S., Fei T., Filcak R., Foerster A., Garg A., Goes G. ., Gonçalvez D.., Healy C., Hosek E., J.-Vinois A., Kobyłka K., La Rovere E., Leonardi M., Levai D., Major M., Malos A., Maurtua Konstantinidis E.., McCall B., Montedonico M., Mosnier A., Nogueira E., Nyiro F., Okereke C., P.-Nguyen V., Palma R., Peterson E., Potashnikov V., Predassi J R., Pye S., Quirós-Tortós J., Rossita A., Safonov G., Safonov M., Sanz Sánchez M. J., Sarr S., Sawyer D., Schaffhauser T., Siagian U., Stetsenko A., Sudharmma Vishwanathan S., Tamura K., Torres R., Trollip H., Valenzuela M. J., Walter M., Watson J., Wetmańska Z., Wills W., Yun J., Zevallos P. (2021). Climate ambition beyond emission numbers: taking stock of progress by looking inside countries and sectors. Deep Decarbonization Pathways (DDP) Initiative-IDDRI. Paris.


This report seeks to open the box of emission pathways, by considering the multidimensional feasibility conditions-i.e. the technical, economic, political, social and institutional- that will enable the required far-reaching and systemic transformation towards the long-term goal. A detailed understanding of the transformations is indeed key to support the adoption of more ambitious emission targets by countries (and other actors), and to guide more effective implementation. On the one hand indeed, the revision of emission targets needs to be guided by an assessment of how drivers should change to trigger transformative shifts rather than an aggregation of marginal mitigation actions in key emitting sectors. On the other hand, converting emissions’ targets into pertinent concrete actions requires a clear and detailed vision of the main levers to be activated, which in turn depends on understanding the end goal of the required transformations as well as the standing point of the necessary conditions for implementation.

Structure of the report

The core of the report is made of 26 country chapters and three sectoral chapters, which can be read independently to enrich the appreciation of ambition for these individual countries and sectors.

The country chapters describe the recent evolutions of domestic discourses on climate ambition, national climate policy, national governance and concrete policies and actions with a significant effect on GHG emissions. Each of the chapters highlights a selection of striking and structurally important elements to advance the transformation towards carbon neutrality. The selection of countries reflects a diversity of sizes, geographies, political and governance contexts, stages of socio-economic development and progress on climate-related dimensions, in an attempt to provide a wide variety of relevant situations.

The sectoral chapters cover Transport, Industry and Agriculture, Forest and Other Land-Use (AFOLU) respectively. These sectors are commonly considered as ‘hard-to-abate’, ie those where techno-economic solutions compatible with carbon neutrality are less clearly identified. These chapters analyse recent trends and reveal the main barriers to overcome in the short term to support rapid and far-reaching transformations.

A “summary for decision-makers” is also included. It presents 10 cross-cutting messages emerging from the country and sector analysis, as a guide to the selection of priorities for collective action in the post-COP26 period.

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