The strongly specialised cereal farmers of Île de France have been recently hit by negative climatic and market events. Milling wheat is experiencing strong competition from Russian production while rapeseed is experiencing strong competition from palm oil. For different political and socio-technical reasons, producers have difficulties to diversify crop rotations or to convert to organic farming—changes that could both help them in terms of environmental sustainability and economic diversification while ethic labels seem to have difficulties answering the difficulties farmers are going through.

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