The issue of global food security must be understood as a relatively recent construction and remains a work in progress. In this article we hypothesize that "food security" consists of several layers—that we have termed institutional and discursive foundations "issue-areas"—and, secondly, we take stock of the most inclusive coordination initiatives that have been implemented in recent years, which we refer to as "meta-initiatives" for global food security.
Points clés [en anglais] :
- FOOD AND NUTRITION SECURITY AS AN OBJECT OF GLOBAL GOVERNANCE IS NOT SELF-EVIDENT
What is today termed as global food security pertains to a set of different issues that have progressively emerged from crises and which have given rise to the creation of governance institutions, which are organised according to distinct mandates and discursive foundations (agricultural production, right to food and nutrition issues, humanitarian crises, trade and development). In addition, food security being a matter of sovereignty often claimed in international relations, its governance on a global level requires and relies upon voluntary efforts and initiatives.
- THE 2007/08 GLOBAL FOOD CRISIS: A RED FLAG FOR POLICYMAKERS
The recent food price crisis that severely affected food importing countries highlighted this urgent need for a global coordination. Three specific post-crisis initiatives (G8:G20; CFS; HLTF) have therefore sought to act on the quality of international coordination. Relying on a cross-cutting approach, these meta-initiatives are an attempt to coherently build the issue of food security at the global level. However, the issue of global food security must be understood as a relatively recent construction and remains a work in progress.
- THE FRAGMENTATION OF GLOBAL FOOD SECURITY GOVERNANCE: A POLITICAL PLURALISM
Despite the collective nature of food insecurity and malnutrition responses, the reality on the ground is of a deep fragmentation and a breakdown of agendas within and in-between institutions. It does not then constitute a spontaneously coordinated whole, and some decisions that are relevant for food and nutrition security are taken by a whole range of various institutions. While discussions on food security are mainly revolving around improving availability of food through increased agricultural production, the fragmentation of discourses and institutions could be an opportunity to enriching the existing architecture with alternative or complementary solutions.