The aim of this study is to make a preliminary assessment of progress in the low-carbon transition in France, and to identify key strategic challenges for the decarbonisation of four sectors: energy, buildings, transport and agriculture.

Key Messages

  • Energy. In order to meet the targets of the PPE (French energy transition plan), France will need to quadruple the pace of energy efficiency improvements in end-use sectors and triple the reduction in fossil fuel consumption. Two key challenges: increasing visibility on the transformation of the electricity sector; and producing a roadmap for the decarbonisation of heat and the development of biogas.
  • Transport. Emissions are increasing, since vehicle efficiency improvements and the deployment of low-carbon vehicles are not enough to offset growing demand for mobility. Controlling this demand, in line with objectives on limiting greenfield development, but also supporting the modal shift from road to rail, and improving the targeting of aid for the purchase of low-carbon vehicles require stronger measures.
  • Buildings. Scaling up efficient renovations to low-energy building standards remains a major challenge. The development of a roadmap seems essential in order to initiate a structural transformation in the next five to ten years, integrating incentive and regulatory mechanisms as well as structuring supply.
  • Agriculture. In the long term, a business-as-usual scenario in the agricultural sector is incompatible with France’s climate goals. Implementing measures to reverse this trend (limiting the loss of permanent grasslands, developing legume crops and anaerobic digestion) nevertheless implies taking account of the social and environmental challenges inherent in any agricultural land use change, especially in terms of biodiversity and food security.
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