Cet article propose une approche conceptuelle de la définition d'instruments de marché tels que des paiements pour services environnementaux au niveau local. Cette approche définit et structure les données à collecter à l'échelle des communautés et des ménages ; reposant sur de solides bases relatives aux motivations et contraintes des différents acteurs, elle peut être utilisée et mise en œuvre sur le terrain.
Extrait de l'introduction [en anglais] :
"Designing PES instruments can still be very challenging at the local level. Environmental services to be provided or conserved are often not clearly observable. Land-use trajectories are not well-known over the long term. Actual relative impact on ecosystem services of communities versus other confounding factors is difficult to disentangle (climate change at the global level, droughts, etc.). Overall, requisite information for making decisions and designing projects is structurally scarce and costly to obtain.
This study proposes a conceptual approach that potentially addresses these issues and assists project implementers in crafting incentive agreements at the local level. Dubbed BLACSI, it defines and structures data to be collected at the community and household levels about Baseline scenarios (BL), Acceptable Changes (AC) and Support and Incentives (SI). As documented in this report, this approach is expected to be useful to practitioners in several ways:
- First, when operationalized on the ground through a rapid assessment (questionnaires and focus group discussions), the approach can be implemented quickly and costefficiently to collect relevant and useful data.
- Second, the approach contributes toward a stronger foundation for incentive agreements, as it collects data at the household level and facilitates discussion and negotiation at the community level. More than just a research protocol, it further builds consensus and promotes participation as well as procedural equity, which in turn enhances sustainability in the long run.
- Third, questionnaires and focus group discussions can be tailored to local conditions. With no significant extra cost, the process can be designed based on the specific socioeconomic and environmental context of each targeted village."