Un chapitre écrit par Alexandre Magnan et Jean-Pierre Gattuso dans le rapport Explaining ocean warming: Causes, scale, effects and consequences (IUCN, 2016) sur le réchauffement des océans, l'ampleur de ses impacts et les solutions pour mettre en œuvre une protection efficace.
Magnan, A. & J.P Gattuso (2016). The cascading effects of climate-related changes in the ocean. In: Laffoley, D., & Baxter, J.M. (editors). 2016. Explaining ocean warming: Causes, scale, effects and consequences. Full report. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. pp. 47-56.
Résumé [en anglais] :
- The ocean moderates anthropogenic climate change by absorbing significant parts of the heat and CO2 that accumulate in the atmosphere. The ocean also receives all water from melting ice.
- This regulating function happens at the cost of profound alterations of the ocean’s physics and chemistry, especially leading to ocean warming and acidification, and consequently sea-level rise.
- These changes significantly affect the ocean’s ecology (organisms and habitats) and, consequently, ecosystem services and coastal human societies (e.g. fisheries, aquaculture, tourism, food security).
- As atmospheric CO2 increases, the solutions (i.e. mitigate, protect, repair, adapt) become fewer and less effective, thus decreasing the long-term ability of humankind to cope with both on-set and gradual changes in the ocean.
- Such an assessment provides further compelling arguments for rapid and ambitious CO2 emission reductions at the international level, notably through the revision cycle of countries’ 2030 pledges (i.e. Intended Nationally Determined Contributions, INDCs) approved by the Paris Agreement in 2015.
Extrait du résumé éxécutif du rapport [en anglais] :
Key recommendations based on the evidence presented in the report [on ocean warming] are that there is a need for: recognition of impact severity; concerted joined-up global policy action for ocean protection; comprehensive protection and management; updated risk assessments; closing gaps in fundamental science and capability needs; acting quickly to keep future options open; achieving rapid and substantial cuts in greenhouse gases.
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